Case studies and reports

Worker participation in the management of occupational safety and health — qualitative evidence from ESENER-2: Country report – Spain

European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (2017). Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union

Luxembourg, 2017

This research was designed to analyse the current participation of workers in occupational safety and health risk prevention. What are the main barriers and obstacles to their participation? What practices might encourage their participation? What actors are involved and how could they help to improve the process of participation and occupational health? These questions are part of the remit of the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA), which proposed this in-depth analysis of the links between worker participation and occupational safety and health.


Guide du bien-être au travail [Guide to well-being at work]

Association Bruxelloise pour le Bien-Etre au Travail (2017). Brussels: ABBET.

Belgium, 2017

This guide is aimed at entrepreneurs and employers. It provides information on the legal obligations regarding health and safety at work and contains ready-made template documents and information sheets.


Working conditions of workers posted to the territory of Slovak Republic

National Labour Inspectorate (2017).

Slovakia, 2017

In this document, the labour inspectorate summaries the regulations on working conditions of posted workers who are posted to Slovakia. It includes a section on occupational safety and health.


Relazione Annuale 2016 del Presidente: Appendice statistica [Annual report 2016: Statistical appendix]

INAIL (2017). Rome: INAIL.

Italy, 2017

The Annual report of the Italian Workers Compensation Authority includes statistical data on accident at work and occupational diseases registered in Italy in 2015. It does not mention the situation of posted workers specifically as general legislation applies to them.


Evaluation of the EU Occupational Safety and Health Directives: Country Summary Report for Italy

Mirabile, M., Valenti, A. (2017). COWI, OIM, Milieu Ltd.

Italy, 2017

The report summarizes the national and international legal framework regarding OSH in Italy and provides information on the main authorities, stakeholders and legislation. It identifies immigrant workers as a vulnerable group, but does not mention posted workers.


Salute e sicurezza in agricoltura: Un’indagine conoscitiva sui lavoratori immigrati [Health and safety in the agricultural sector: The research of immigrant workers]

INAIL (2016). Rome: INAIL.

Italy, 2016

The report focuses on health and safety at work of immigrant workers employed in the agricultural sector. It provides information on the context of reference, the dimensions of the migratory phenomenon in Italy, accidents and occupational diseases, health protection and safety at work. It does not include information on the posting of workers.


Contexts and arrangements for occupational safety and health in micro and small enterprises in the EU – SESAME PROJECTS

EU-OSHA (2016). Bilbao: European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA).

Spain, 2016

This report presents findings from the first phase of the project, which reviewed up-to-date knowledge on OSH in MSEs, identifying what is currently known and where the gaps are, including the degree of existing OSH arrangements and outcomes, as well as contextual issues such as regulatory environment and available support.


Napotenidelavci.si: e-priročnik za delavce, delodajalce in pristojne javne uslužbence [Postedworkers.si: e-handbook for workers, employers and competent public authorities]

Rogelja, N., Toplak, K., Mlekuž, J. (2016).

Slovenia, 2016

The e-manual for workers, employers and competent public servants wishes to increase accessibility, transparency and coherence of information about posting workers for different target groups: workers, employers and competent public servants. It brings general information about posting workers to Slovenia and from Slovenia (types, general conditions and rules for postings), insight into legislation (international within the EU and Slovenian with the emphasis on the Directive 96/71/ES and Directive 2014/67/EU in the field of posting workers) and practical guidance for workers and employers as well as the responsible public administrators. It includes a section on occupational safety and health.


Stratégia bezpečnosti a ochrany zdravia pri práci v Slovenskej republike na roky 2016 až 2020 a program jej realizácie [Strategy on Occupational Safety and Health for the Slovak Republic]

Institute for Labor and Family Research (2016).

Slovakia, 2016

The strategy summaries the current state of OSH in Slovakia and lists the priorities in the field of OSH for the years 2016 to 2020. It identifies key areas for improvement and outlines the pathways to strengthen the cooperation of stakeholders.


Informe sobre el estado de la seguridad y salud laboral en España [report on the status of labour safety and health in Spain]

Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo (2016).

Spain, 2016

The objective of the report is to analyse the state of the situation in which Spain is in terms of prevention of occupational risks, in which all those who have something or much to say from the different Institutions that they represent have been involved.


Safer and healthier work at any age: Country Inventory: Belgium

Verjans, M., Vandenbroeck, S., Lambreghts, C., Fries-Tersch, E. (2016). European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA).

Belgium, 2016

The report especially focuses on age related factors of OSH, but provides a section on labour, OSH and antidiscrimination Belgian legislation. It does not mention the situation of posted workers specifically as general legislation applies to them.


Safer and healthier work at any age: Country Inventory: Austria

Prammer, E., Eichmann, H., Fries-Tersch, E. (2016). European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA).

Austria, 2016

The report especially focuses on age related factors of OSH and includes an overview of the Austrian OSH framework and stakeholders, but does not mention the situation of posted workers specifically.


Safer and healthier work at any age: Country Inventory: Italy

Banfi, P., Fries-Tersch, E. (2016). European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA).

Italy, 2016

The report especially focuses on age related factors of OSH, but provides a section on Labour, OSH and antidiscrimination Italian legislation. It does not mention the situation of posted workers specifically as general legislation applies to them.


Posting of Workers: Sharing Experiences, Promoting Best Practices and Improving Access to Information: Final expert report

Vah Jevšnik, M., Cukut Krilić, S. (2016).

Slovenia, 2016

The aim of the report is to summarise and reflect on a variety of issues relating to the process of posting of workers that were discussed at the transnational events held within the framework of the project and attended by stakeholders from the participant countries. The chapters outline these debates and combine them with an extensive literature review in order to define the existing and emerging challenges, such as establishing efficient transnational cooperation between competent public bodies, developing amendments to the existing Posting of Workers Directive, reacting to social dumping and other violations of workers’ rights, and neglecting the issue of occupational safety and health of posted workers. Based on the findings, the report provides some recommendations to inform the policy dialogue in Slovenia and other EU countries, and outlines further research possibilities relating to the issue of posting of workers.


Safe and healthier work at any age: Country Inventory: Slovakia

Kordošová, M., Fries-Tersch, E. (2016). European Agency for Safety and Health at Work.

Slovakia, 2016

The report especially focuses on age related factors of OSH, but includes an overview of the Slovak institutional structure for OSH and the stakeholders.


Occupational Safety and Health Strategy: Structures, processes and tasks

Kerschhagl, J., Kaida, G. (2016). Vienna: Federal Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection.

Austria, 2016

The report presents the structures of the Occupational Safety and Health Strategy 2013-2020 for Austria. It gives an overview of the relevant stakeholders and bodies involved in the OSH process at regional and national levels, as well as the coordination and decision making processes, but does not mention the situation of posted workers specifically.


Evaluation of the EU Occupational Safety and Health Directives: Country Summary Report for Austria

Mairhuber, I., Prammer, E. (2015). Vienna: FORBA.

Austria, 2015

In-depth report on the legal framework regarding OSH in Austria, describing the main authorities, stakeholders and legislation. It also depicts compliance with rules and rule enforcement. While it highlights some vulnerable groups of workers, does not mention the situation of posted workers specifically.


Evaluation of the EU Occupational Safety and Health Directives: Country Summary Report for Belgium

Vancauwenbergh, S., Meura, L., Bruggeman, V. (2015). COWI, OIM, Milieu Ltd.

Belgium, 2015

The report summarizes the national legal framework regarding OSH in Belgium, focusing on the implementation of EU Directives. It provides information on the main authorities, stakeholders and legislation and maps the measures adopted by Belgium in order to improve the implementation of OSH requirements. It does not mention the situation of posted workers specifically as general legislation applies to them.


The Belgian National Strategy for Wellbeing at Work 2016-2020 as proposed by the Minister of Employment: Strategic and operational objective

Minister of Employment (2015). Brussels: Ministry of Employment.

Belgium, 2015

The Belgian National Strategy for Wellbeing at Work 2016-2020 includes data on accidents at work and occupational diseases and offers an overview on preventive measures developed in order to achieve the main objectives of the national strategy. It does not mention the situation of posted workers specifically as general legislation applies to them.


Croatia: New law on occupational health and safety

Bejakovič, P., Klemenčič, I. (2015). Dublin: Eurofound.

Ireland, 2015

This report provides basic information on law on occupational health and safety passed by Croatia’s parliament on 30 May 2014. This law establishes a new governing body and builds on the previous 1996 act, now allowing employers to use audio and video monitoring devices. The act also introduces measures to help combat stress at work.


Posting Report: Belgium

EFBWW, FIEC (2014). Brussels: EFBWW.

Belgium, 2014

The report focuses on occupational, safety and health regulations applied to posted workers employed in the construction sector in Belgium. The section on “Health and safety rules” gives an overview of the procedures to be adopted in order to comply with the existing rules.


Posting Report: Italy

EFBWW, FIEC (2014). Brussels: EFBWW.

Belgium, 2014

The report focuses on occupational, safety and health regulations applied to posted workers employed in the construction sector in Italy. The section on “Health and safety rules” gives an overview of the procedures to be adopted in order to comply with the existing rules.


Infectious Disease Hazards in the Migrant Worker Population

Kosanović Ličina, M. L. (2014). Sigurnost: Časopis za sigurnost u radnoj in životnoj okolini 56 (1), 11–22.

Croatia, 2014

Work-related migration occurs between countries with different levels of economic standard and the workers migrating to an economically underdeveloped country often face the danger from infectious diseases. Infection by causative agents of infectious diseases affects not only the health of the migrant himself, but also overall health of the country of origin the migrant returns to. The risk of infection depends on the destination country, length of stay, accommodation, type of work and the health condition of the migrant. To reduce the possibility of infection, each migrant should be informed about health hazards and the ways of avoiding them before migrating or travelling, by consulting with physicians specialised in prevention of travel-related diseases.


Piano Nazionale della Prevenzione 2014-2018 [National Prevention Plan 2014-2018]

Ministero della Salute (2013). Rome: Ministry of Health.

Italy, 2013

The National Prevention Plan 2014-2018 includes a section on occupational safety and health strategy 2014-2018 for Italy (Macro obiettivo 7: Prevenire gli infortuni e le malattie professionali). It offers an overview on risk factors and preventive measures, national and international legislative framework, the main objectives of the national strategy. It does not mention the situation of posted workers specifically as general legislation applies to them.


Impact of Living and Working Conditions on the Health of Migrant Workers

Bubaš, M., Kneževič, B., Krišto, D., Mihalinac-Bolanča, M., Pejnović, N., Bogadi-Šare, A. (2013). Sigurnost: Časopis za sigurnost u radnoj in životnoj okolini 55 (4), 333 – 339.

Croatia, 2013

Migrant workers live in poor conditions, often work in workplaces with low levels of occupational safety and are forced to live away from family for longer periods of time. Frequently, the risk of injury at work is high. Migrant workers have a higher incidence of a variety of diseases, many of which directly affect their work ability. Significant numbers of migrant workers are exposed to infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and hepatitis, as well as to the ever growing incidence of HIV infection.


Estudio de requisitos de prevención en la internalización de empresas de la construcción [Study of prevention requirements in the internalisation of construction companies]

Arévalo Sarrate, C., Pascual dal Valle, J. P. (2013). Madrid: Fundación Agustín de Betancourt.

Spain, 2013

A study that analyses the challenges construction enterprises have to tackle regarding the protection of their workers.


Regulation and Enforcement of Posted Workers Employment Rights (PostER): Belgian Case Study Final Report

Ouali, N. (2012). Brussels: Université Libre de Bruxelles.

Belgium, 2012

This report presents the labour legislation applied to posted workers in Belgium and analyses the working conditions of posted workers in the construction industry and in the transport sector. Moreover, it examines existing good practices aimed at informing workers of their rights.


Welcome to Romania! Information guide for third -country nationals 2nd edition

Mocanu, G., Guga, S., Novac R. (2012). Bucarest: Little Lamb Suceava.

Romania, 2012

The guide is aimed at providing information regarding the rights, obligations and possibilities of integrating people as a foreign citizen that have a right of residence in Romania. By providing information regarding the responsibilities of the public institutions, the labour market, the protection and social assistance system in Romania, access to health care, ways of solving claims, forms of association, etc., the article wants to help improve their chances of benefiting from these rights, to prevent and fight discrimination in the workplace and social marginalisation, to increase mobility and present some ways of active participation in the life of the community they are part of.


OSH in figures: Occupational safety and health in the transport sector – an overview

European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (2011). Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.

Luxembourg, 2011

This report, the fifth in the European Risk Observatory’s ‘OSH in figures’ series, seeks to describe the OSH situation of European transport workers and give an outlook to expected future developments. Work organisational changes as well as customer expectations and conflicting demands in a growing service economy have contributed to an increase in violence, there are growing concerns about transport workers fatigue, and increasingly transport workers suffer from stress and a variety of musculoskeletal disorders.


Study on the protection of workers' rights in subcontracting processes in the European Union – Italy

Orlandini, G. (2011). Siena.

Italy, 2011

This report provides an overview of applicable rules ensuring the protection of workers' rights in subcontracting, including posted workers. It includes a specific section regarding client’s and contractors’ obligations in the OSH field.


Zdravje migrantskih delavcev v Sloveniji: rezultati pilotske študije

Draksler, K. (2011). Zdravje migrantskih delavcev v Sloveniji: rezultati pilotske študije [Health of migrant workers in Slovenia: results of a pilot study]. Glasnik KIMDPŠ 5(1), 11-14.

Slovenia , 2011

This article provides results of a pilot study on health of migrant workers in Slovenia. The article does not have an abstract or summary in English.


In search of cheap labour in Europe: Working and living conditions of posted workers

Cremers, J. (2011). Brussels: CLR.

Belgium, 2011

The book provides an overview of the implementation of the 96/71/EC Directive in 12 European countries and presents the results of a field survey concerning the working conditions of posted workers in the construction sector. The book includes a chapter on Belgium.


Slovakia: Posted workers

Cziria, L. (2010). EurWORK, Eurofound.

Slovakia, 2010

This short questionnaire for the Eurofound observatory on working conditions, provides an overview of the situation of posted workers in Slovakia as of 2010, with some information on the legal framework and stakeholders.


Straniero, non estraneo: ABC della sicurezza sul lavoro: Opuscolo informativo per i lavoratori stranieri e le loro famiglie [Foreigner, not stranger: ABC of safety at work: Information brochure for foreign workers and their families]

INAIL (2010). Rome: INAIL.

Italy, 2010

This booklet provides information on safety in the workplace and protection of foreign workers and their families. It is available in 10 languages (Italian, Albanian, Arabic, English, French, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Spanish, Filipino, Ukrainian).


Posting report Slovakia

Mesároš, P. (2009). European Federation of Building and Woodworkers (EFBWW) and European Construction Industry Federation.

Slovakia, 2009

The report lists the rules and regulations for employment in Slovakia as of 2009. There is a special section on safety at work in the construction industry.


Austria: EWCO comparative analytical report on Information, consultation and participation of workers concerning health and safety

Krenn, M. (2010). EurWORK, Eurofound.

Austria, 2010

This report summarizes the OSH situation of workers in Austria and the regulatory framework as of 2010. It was prepared for Eurofound’s observatory on working conditions (EWCO) and offers a first orientation of the system, but does not mention the situation of posted workers specifically.


OSH in figures: stress at work — facts and figures

European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (2009). Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.

Luxembourg, 2009

This report discusses the prevalence of stress and the trends in work-related stress in the Member States of the European Union (based on international and national data), identifying those groups particularly exposed to stress in their working lives, subdivided by age, gender, sector, occupation, and employment status.


L’analyse des risques [Risk analysis]

Belgian Federal Public Service Employment, Labour and Social Dialogue (2009). Brussels: SPF.

Belgium, 2009

This guide presents a detailed overview of roles and responsibilities of the parties involved in the dynamic risk management system (employers, supervisors, prevention advisors, workers, committee for prevention and protection at work). It does not mention the situation of posted workers specifically as general legislation applies to them.