The European Free Trade Association (EFTA) is an intergovernmental organisation set up for the promotion of free trade and economic integration to the benefit of its four member states – Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland – and the benefit of their trading partners around the globe.
The Enforcement Directive (2014/67/EU) introduces provisions, measures and control mechanisms necessary for better and more uniform implementation, application and enforcement of the Posting of Workers Directive (96/71/EC). It is particularly addressing issues related to fraud, circumvention of rules and exchange of information between the member states.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of 28 member states that can be distinguished on the basis of the period of their adhesion to the founding treaties and the consequent accession to the EU. Old member states or EU 15 include Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom. New member states or EU 13 include the countries that have joined the EU since 2004: Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia.
European Union information agency for occupational safety and health (EU-OSHA) develops, gathers and provides reliable and relevant information, analysis and tools to advance knowledge, raise awareness and exchange OSH information and good practice which serve the needs of those involved in OSH.
Hazard is the source, situation, or act with a potential for harm in terms of human injury or ill health, or a combination of these, i.e. anything present in the workplace that has the potential to cause an injury to workers, either a work accident or an occupational disease.
Health in relation to work, indicates not merely the absence of disease or infirmity; it also includes the physical and mental elements affecting health which are directly related to safety and hygiene at work.
Migrant worker is a person who has moved to a country other than that of his or her usual residence in order to take up work or find employment.
Occupational disease is a disease contracted as a result of an exposure over a period of time to risk factors (chemical, physical or biological agents) arising from work activity, that is any chronic ailment that occurs as a result of work or occupational activity. It is typically identified when it is shown that it is more prevalent in a given body of workers than in the general population, or in other worker populations. Examples include respiratory diseases (e.g. asbestosis or occupational asthma), skin diseases, musculoskeletal disorders (e.g. carpal tunnel syndrome) and occupational cancer.
Online interactive Risk Assessment (OiRA) is a web platform that enables the creation of sectoral risk assessment tools in any language in an easy and standardised way. It is developed and maintained by the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA) and it is based on the Dutch risk assessment instrument RI&E.
Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) is an interdisciplinary activity concerned with the prevention of occupational risks inherent to each work activity. The main aim is the promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of safety and health at work, therefore creating conditions to avoid the occurrence of work accidents and ill health. The achievement of this desirable state of safe working conditions implies that employers must perform risk assessment regarding safety and health at work, and must decide if actions are required and what kind of OSH measures should be implemented. According to the International Labour Organization, OSH encompasses the social, mental and physical well-being of workers, that is the “whole person”. Therefore OSH is not only avoiding work accidents or occupational diseases, but the result of taking actions to identify their causes (hazards existent at workplace) and the implementation of adequate preventive OSH control measures.
OSH framework directive
The European Framework Directive on Safety and Health at Work (89/391 EEC) adopted in 1989 was a substantial milestone in improving safety and health at work. It guarantees minimum safety and health requirements throughout Europe while Member States are allowed to maintain or establish more stringent measures.
Portable document A1
Portable Document A1 is a formal statement proving that the holder pays social security contributions in another EU member state or an EFTA country. This implies that they do not fall under the social security scheme of the member state where they provide services. The form is issued by a national social security institution of the EU member state or the EFTA country, where the holder is officially employed and posted from.
A posted worker is a worker who, for a limited period, carries out his or her work in the territory of a EU member state other than the state in which he or she normally works.
Posting of workers directive
The Posting of Workers Directive (96/71/EC) is an EU directive concerned with the free movement of workers within the European Union. It guarantees minimum rights to workers posted by undertakings to perform work in the territory of a member state.
Prevention considers all the steps or measures taken or planned at all stages of work in the undertaking to prevent or reduce occupational risks.
Risk is the combination of the likelihood of an occurrence of a hazardous event or exposure and the severity of injury or ill health that can be caused by the event or exposure.
Risk assessment is the process of evaluating risks to workers’ safety and health from workplace hazards. It is a systematic examination of all aspects of work that considers: what could cause injury or harm; whether the hazards could be eliminated and, if not; what preventive or protective measures are, or should be, in place to control the risks.
Safety is the state of being "safe" i.e. free from harm or risk, but in practice this state is never obtained. Therefore safety must be seen as a value judgment regarding the level of risk of being injured which is considered to be acceptable.
Work accident is a discrete occurrence in the course of work (even if the accident happens off the company’s premises, or if it is caused by third parties), which leads to physical or mental harm.